Jhelum District Rawalpindi Division Punjab Province of Pakistan

Jhelum District Rawalpindi Division Punjab Province of Pakistan. Jhelum is one of the oldest districts of Punjab. The district of Jhelum stretches from the river Jhelum almost to the Indus. In ancient days Jhelum was known as Jalham. This word is combination of two words Jal & Ham. Jal means pure water & Ham stands for snow. The district of Jhelum was established under the British regime on 23rd March 1849. The Head quarter of the district was Pind Dadan Khan. It consisted of tehsils of P.D. Khan, Chakwal and Jabbi. In the same year tehsil of Rohtas was also transferred to this district from Rawalpindi.
Jhelum is known for providing a large number of soldiers to the British and later to the Pakistan armed forces due to which it is also known as city of soldiers or land of martyrs and warriors.
Dissected basin plains, mountains, ridges and trough upland, weathered bed-rock plains, alluvial fans, pied mount plains and basin plains are the different geological types of land in this area.

Location
District Jhelum is situated in the North-East of Punjab; Jhelum spreads on both sides of the Grand Trunk Road. It is bound in the North by Rawalpindi, in the South by Mandi Baha-ud-Din, Gujrat and Sargodha and in the East by Azad Jammu and Kashmir and in the West by Chakwal & Khushab from which it is separated by the mountain range called the Kohistan-e-Namak.
The river passes through the Eastern and Southern Parts of the district. The soil adjoining the river is generally plain, alluvial and quite fertile. This area is generally cultivable and produces all types of crops. In the North, however, most of the upland is rough and broken. The land here is mostly fertile but Barani Mountains of the Salt Range with interspersed plateaus cover much of it. The Western edge of tehsil PD Khan is both exceedingly rough and difficult in approach making this area relatively in accessible.

History
In 1850, Jabbi was abolished and new tehsil of Jhelum was constituted.In 1857 Talagang tehsil was transferred to Campbellpur district. Thus at the time of independence the district consisted of three tehsils Jhelum, Pind DadanKhan and Chakwal.
During the year 1985 Chakwal district was created comprising Chakwal, Talagang of Attock & substantial part of Pind Dadan Khan tehsil. Jhelum was bifurcated in two parts by creating a new tehsil of Sohawa in July, 1985.
In the year, 2003, the Tehsil Jhelum was once again bifurcated into parts by creating a new tehsil Dina. 

Administrative Division
Now the district Jhelum consists of the following four tehsils.
Jhelum
Sohawa
Pind DadanKhan

Natural Resources

Salt is quarried at the Mayo mine in the Salt Range. There are two coal-mines, the only ones worked in the province, from which the North-Western railway obtains part of its supply of coal. The chief centre of the salt trade is PindDadan Khan. The district is crossed by the main line of the North-Western railway, and also traversed along the south by a branch line.

Languages
Punjabi is the primary language of Jhelum District, and Urdu is the predominant languages of the city.English is also understood and spoken by the educated elite. Other spoken languages Inhabitants of Jhelum District a great variety of Punjabi dialects: which are
Ø  Pothohari (Northern and Western Side),
Ø  Majhi or standard (in cities),
Ø  Shapuri (east side along the river and parts of TehsilPind dadan khan)
Ø  Dhani (western side along Chakwal).
Ø  Thalochi (parts of Tehsil Pind dadan khan)
Climate
The climate of the tract is extreme. In winter it is very cold and summer is very hot. The average rainfall varies from 48 to 69 m.m per annum which is much below the required quantity but in the rainy season the water torrents flow from North to the river Jhelum with a very fast speed and cause damages to the crops, bridges, roads and are responsible for the soil erosion in the District. 
Small Lakes or Dams
1.TAINPURA DAM-I LAKE
2.TAINPURA DAM-II LAKE
3.JAMMERGAL LAKE
4.GARAT LAKE
5.LEHRI(BARAL) LAKE
6. SALIAL LAKE
7.DOMELI LAKE
8.SHAH HABIB LAKE
9.GURHA UTAM SINGH LAKE
10.FATEHPUR LAKE

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